Select here what should be displayed in the chart and in the table.

Download Headline CSV Download Source CSV

Data source: Federal Statistical Office

Geographical Area: Germany

This table includes additional information to the above visualized indicators, i.e. a short definition of this indicator and a description of the politically determined target values as well as explaining the political intention behind selecting this indicator.


The indicator shows the difference between the average gross hourly earnings of women and men expressed as a percentage of the average gross hourly earnings of men.

Target and intention

Differences in pay between men and women in a modern business-oriented society are a sign of social inequality. A narrowing of pay disparities indicates progress on the road to equality. The Federal Government is therefore pursuing the goal of reducing the pay gap to 10 % by 2020 and to maintain the value until 2030.

Data status

The data published in the indicator report 2022 is as of 31 October 2022. The data shown on this platform is updated regularly, so that more current data may be available online than published in the indicator report 2022.

Text from the Indicator Report 2022 

The indicator presented here shows the unadjusted gender pay gap (GPG). Therefore, it only expresses the relative average gross hourly earnings as a ratio without considering the underlying causes, such as qualification, occupation or a different employment history.

The data for the indicator is based on the four-yearly structure of earnings survey conducted by the statistical offices of the Länder as a representative sample survey covering a maximum of 60,000 businesses who are obliged to provide the requested information. Based on these data, results are provided by age, educational attainment, performance group, activity, collective agreement, company size class and economic sector, and the adjusted GPG is published. For the interim years, the unadjusted GPG is updated using the rates of change from the quarterly survey of earnings. In the following, the EU definition is used for the adjusted and unadjusted GPG; it excludes employees in “agriculture, forestry and fishing”, “public administration and defence; compulsory social security” and in micro-enterprises.

In 2020 and 2021, the unadjusted GPG was 18 % on average. The goal to reduce the unadjusted GPG to 10 % by 2020 was missed. Hence, if the trend recorded over the last five years continues, the goal set for 2030 will not be achieved.

The unadjusted GPG is slowly but steadily declining for Germany long-term. The value in 2012 was 23 % and, thus, 5 percentage points above the value in 2021. The unadjusted GPG varied markedly between the Länder: in 2021, the GPG was highest in Baden-Württemberg and Bremen with 22 %, while being at 5 % for Brandenburg, Mecklenburg Western Pomerania and Thuringia.

Investigations into the causal factors behind the GPG can be conducted every four years on the basis of the detailed results of the structure of earnings survey. The latest available findings date from 2018. The factors that determine pay differentials are subject to long-term evolution processes and are therefore fairly stable over the course of time. The findings show that structural causes account for 71 % of the GPG, in other words the differences are partly due to the fact that women often work in sectors and occupations where pay rates are low, and they more rarely attain managerial positions. They are also more likely than men to work part-time or to have mini-jobs.

The remaining 29 % of the pay differential corresponds to the adjusted GPG of 6 % in 2018. Compared with the unadjusted GPG, the adjusted GPG figure is considerably more uniform across the Länder. In 2018, the adjusted gap ranged from 4 % in Berlin to 7 % in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Bremen, Hamburg and Saxony.

Comparative data for the European Union with mostly provisional results is available until 2020. From 2010 on, the unadjusted GPG in Germany lay considerably above the provisional European Union average. Of the 25 EU states in 2020, only Latvia, with 22 %, Estonia, with 21 %, and Austria, with 19 %, had a higher GPG. The countries with the lowest gender differentials in gross hourly pay were Luxembourg, with 1 %, Romania, with 2 %, and Slovenia, with 3 %.

The synoptic table provides information about the evaluation of the indicator in previous years. It shows if the weather symbol assigned to an indicator was rather stable or volatile in the past years. (Evaluation of the Indicator Report 2022 )


5.1.a Gender pay gap


Reduce the gap to 10 % by 2020, maintained until 2030 subsequently






Evaluation <p>Wolke</p>